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1. Introduction

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Department of Defense DoD Instruction This DOD Instruction This document contains a memorandum dated 5 September mandating that in order to "improve our overall environmental compliance and performance Environmental Management Systems. This Department Manual release, DM 4, issued August 13, , updates Departmental policy, responsibilities, and functions on environmental management systems to be conducted on Departmental lands, facilities, operations, and services. This document, dated 3 February , establishes the environmental policy goals of the DOJ by affirming a commitment to environmental stewardship principles and the development of an EMS.

Issued by the Commandant of the U. Issued by the U. The Energy Policy Act of E-Pact established new statutory requirements specifically designed to improve the environmental management of federal facility underground storage tanks USTs. Executive Order Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, requires that federal agencies implement environmental management systems EMS at all appropriate organizational levels. This EPA document provides guidance and examples of how efforts to address Underground Storage Tank regulatory requirements and implement best management practices for UST operations can work in concert with Environmental Management System implementation.

Introduction to EMS auditing concepts. This EMS guide, developed in by the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive, was prepared for the manager s of any Federal site, facility, installation, office or organization where those individuals have authority to allocate resources and direct activities. A MS Powerpoint presentation that was given to senior officials at the Department of Justice headquarters building in July, An article by Edward A.

This guide is designed to help Federal managers who are considering adopting an environmental management system EMS. This guide is designed to explain environmental management system EMS concepts and to support and facilitate the development of EMS among small and medium-sized organizations. This study, was designed to determine if EMSs do in fact improve environmental performance. Baseline information, information on EMS design, and information on changes in performance were collected from each facility over several years. State managers played a critical role in ensuring data quality and worked closely with a number of facilities involved in the research.

This guidance, issued by the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance OECA will increase the use of EMSs in civil settlements and explains how they will be used to address the root causes of violations and the risks they pose to communities and ecosystems. In addition, EPA is working with the U. Department of Justice to seek EMSs in appropriate criminal plea agreements to achieve beneficial outcomes for the environment.

EPA also has issued a memorandum, Expanding the Use of Supplemental Environmental Projects SEPs , to encourage and expand their use in enforcement settlements and in community involvement.

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Johnson, December 13, This updated statement replaces the Position Statement on EMS signed by Administrator Whitman and reflects EPA's experiences to date with the promotion of voluntary EMSs as well as our continued commitment to be a leader in this area. The classification was done in accordance with the advice of the public relations officers of EPA in Kumasi.

From these Clusters, the study organisations were then selected purposively from a list of 14 organisations listed with EPA-Ghana for environmental assessment in The study forms part of a larger research that assessed the effects of environmental sustainability practices on the growth of manufacturing companies in the Ashanti region of Ghana.

Again, the study focuses on issues such as green technologies and environmental sustainability of manufacturing companies, which are all contemporary, hence, survey design was desirable Creswell and Creswell, According to Nsowah-Nuamah , surveys are among the systematic means of obtaining standardised information about the behaviour, attitudes and any other characteristics of a population being studied. In order to obtain answers to the research questions raised and at the same time achieving the objectives of the study and drawing valid conclusions, the researchers took into account a sample that was representative.

A representative sample according to Babbie is a sample that bears all the characteristics of the population it is representing. Such steps involve the identification of unit of analysis, specification of target and study populations, sample size determination and sample selection.

All these processes were embarked upon in order that sampling errors would be minimised. Nevertheless, determining a sample size that would be equally representative of the population was also difficult. As a result, factors such as the population homogeneity or otherwise, fraction of the population constituting the sample and lastly the desired precision margin of error were considered in the determination of the sample size.

Giving these factors, the margin of error for the determination of the sample size was 0. The figures were then substituted into Moser and Kalton's formula for determining sample size. The formula is given as:. The sample size of the study was about For this reason, the sample size of respondents made up of the management, senior and junior staff of the selected organisations is considered adequate for the study.

This margin of error decreases as the sample size increases beyond Therefore, this sample size is considered adequate to yield the expected result, more especially, where the sample was selected scientifically by means of stratified sampling technique. In the first stage, all the targeted MCs were clustered under the major manufacturing industries in the region that they belong to. They were companies engaging in wood processing, pharmaceutical, animal feeds processing, food and meat processing, drinks and beverages as well as oil processing.

Cluster sampling was used to select the five manufacturing companies in the Ashanti region which were listed by the EPA as the worse performing organisations in environmental sustainability practices. The remaining organisation Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Therefore, its inclusion was meant to serve as a control group to the other five organisations. The MCs were thus selected based on the major manufacturing industries in the region that they belong to.

As such each company selected represented a cluster of companies in the manufacturing sector with common environmental sustainability practices in accordance with the EPA specifications. Furthermore, the choice of different companies was based on the assertion that using exclusively, organisations which have implemented environmental sustainability practices would mean that the sample will not vary on sustainability practices Christmann, In the second stage of the sampling process, proportional stratified sampling Proportionate sample allocation technique was used after clustering the manufacturing companies into wood processing, pharmaceutical, animal feeds processing, food and meat processing, drinks and beverages as well as oil processing.

Akuoko has stated that when the population consists of a number of subgroups strata that are heterogeneous in nature, it is often desirable to use stratified sampling in order to cater for the variability in the population. It is a probability sampling design in which the population is first divided into homogenous strata and a sample is selected from each stratum.

In stratified sampling researchers first divide the population into sub-groups and from each stratum they select a certain number of sample units to form the sample. Bearing this in mind, a mathematical formula was applied in obtaining the proportion of each stratum each company of the study population to constitute the sample.

The formula for determining the sample allocation for each stratum in the sample was given as:. Two instruments were used to capture information for analysis in the study.

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However, the main instrument used for the data collection was questionnaire. The questionnaire was the only quantitative data collection instrument used and was designed based on the objectives of the study. The questionnaire was made up of open and close ended questions. The close ended questions allowed respondents to answer question by making a choice out of a list of options. The open ended questions allows for flexibility in answering the question.

It provides an opportunity for the respondents to provide their own responses to supplement the responses provided in the close ended questions.

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Finally Likert scaled type of questions were also used in order to help measure variables at the interval level. Semi-structured interview schedules or protocols were designed to elicit information from the key-informants to support the data from the questionnaire survey. This was in conformity to Bhattacherjee assertion that personal observation is important in social research.

It is observed that the king pin of any scientific research is the accuracy of the analysis of its data. Burns and Bush agreed more when they said that it was the most important aspect of any research and ought to be done critically and technically. In this regard, data gathered were edited by scrutinising the completed questionnaires to make sure that the responses did not have errors so as to influence the validity of the results.

Kothari indicated that editing of data involves critical examination of the raw data gathered from the field in order to identify errors and omissions and correct them to ensure that the data collected were accurate.

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Babbie believes that editing involves going through data in order to find out inconsistencies and errors. After editing, the responses to the open-ended questions were then coded just as the responses to the close-ended questions had been. The coding process involved categorising responses and assigning numbers to responses so that they can be put into one exclusive category. Coding was followed by the data cleaning. Cleaning data involved a critical search for coding errors identified as being impossible and improbably based on the way the variables were defined. Hereafter, a carefully scrutinised coding scheme was developed.

As a result the variables and their coded attributes or values were keyed in the computer for SPSS software programme to process them for analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistical components of SPSS were utilised.

In Practice

Through the descriptive statistics were presented using tables and chi-square with ANOVA were used to test for correlations and levels of significance. Since the study did not consider human experiment, no ethical approval was sought. One of the main objectives of this study was to find out both positive and negative effects of ESPs on the growth of MFs in Ashanti region.

The inclusion of this objective was meant to clarify uncertainty as to the real effects of ESPs on the growth of MCs. The conviction of the author of this study was that by ascertaining the real effects of ESPs would facilitate the conclusion as to why most of the MFs in Ashanti region failed to keep up with the environmental sustainability standards. Elite theory of public policy according to Wilson assumes that business leaders and corporate interest dominate policy processes.