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The Egoist , as the refashioned New Freewoman was now called, was clearly not a stronghold of authoritarian or patriarchal values, but a forum for radical individualism. The modernists had launched a fierce assault on the conventional complacencies of a stagnant culture, yet when confronted with the actual violence of the war, they felt that art had to provide a sense of coherence, order, and control necessary for survival. Eliot reinvented tradition as a remedy against loss and postwar trauma. He refashioned it as an antidote to the collapse of a culture that had to be saved from anarchy and nihilism, and also from DADA aesthetics.

Eliot conceived of the process of poetic creation as visionary incursions into the past and searched for anthropological origins that were explored by the language of depth psychology.

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Simultaneism was a specific artistic movement inaugurated by Robert and Sonia Delaunay in , which introduced a prominent strategy of avant-garde experimentation in Cubism and Futurism that broke down the barriers of time and space. The theory of impersonality enabled him to drop the convention of a stable lyric voice and to replace direct self-exposure by a series of dramatizations of the conflicts of a consciousness at odds with itself.

As Altieri magisterially argued, by these strategies, Eliot invented a new means for dramatizing psychic forces and inner conflicts while recomposing subjectivity into a new geometry that shapes the non-discursive, nonlinear space of interior life — To Confessional poets like Lowell, Berryman, Plath, Roethke, Eliot showed how to take on victimizing stances in such a way as to go beyond autobiography and make intimate suffering culturally representative.

Their projections of selfhood are the result of a detached consciousness that objectively faces its own antagonistic dynamism.

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Moreover, despite their personal disclosures, neither of the Confessional poets actually relies on autobiography for success. Berryman was outraged by his identification with Henry. I believe that one should be able to control and manipulate experiences, even the most terrific, like madness, being tortured […] with an informed and an intelligent mind. To some, like Robert Penn Warren, Allen Tate, and Robert Lowell or Seamus Heaney he showed how to confront the ghosts of history and to others he provided antidotes against the contemporary dissociations of sensibility.

These two essays lie at the origins of modernity, representing signposts of opposite traditions, one foregrounding the primacy of feelings and emotions, the other the preeminence of artistic control. Yet, paradoxically, in his quarrel with Wordsworth, Eliot, the theorist of impersonality, far from debunking emotions as one might expect, only deepens the sense of the unconscious in the process of poetic creation.

It does not depend on his deliberate intention. The creative process is nothing more than a long wait for a flash of unexpected intuition from the unconscious. Split into the subject and object of its own reflections, the poetic persona became a self-observing voice unfolding in interior monologues in which ideas, voices, and feelings were played off against each other.

Trapped in the dreary space of the quotidian, conscious of their romantic aspirations yet ridiculing themselves, and being ridiculed by the surrounding world, they longed for an ideal reality that was grotesquely undermined by real conditions. This fusion itself is a sudden transfiguration into something new which brings together the personal and the impersonal, the concrete and the universal, and the time and the timeless. The poetic quest is always a striving for something larger and higher than the individual.

It is a sudden process of transfiguration during which the particular and finite attain the universal Corti, Eliot solves the clash between tradition and the individual talent by transforming the poet into a medium that becomes the intermediary between two realms, the particular and the universal, the personal and the impersonal, the transient and the permanent, the specific and the general. Eliot, b, Historical re-construction did not rely on a cumulus of data but on aesthetic intuition. Except for the brief positivistic objectivist phase at the beginning of his career, which was a rejection of the Hegelian idealist tradition represented by Bradley, Eliot believed that our understanding is limited by our concrete historical situation.

In his analysis of the Bradleyan philosophy, Eliot affirmed the relative character of knowledge. Contents [ show ]. VIAF : Categories :.

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Cancel Save. Poet , translator. This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. Authority control. If it all depended on viewing the category of freedom alone as the key to Utopia, then the content of idealism would really mean the same as Utopia, for idealism seeks nothing else but the realization of freedom without actually including the realization of happiness in the process. It is thus within a context that all these categories appear and are connected.

Out of the wasteland: the first World War and modernism

The category of happiness always has something wretched about it as isolated category and appears deceptive to the other categories. It would change itself just like, on the other hand, the category of freedom, too, which would then no longer be an end in itself and an end in itself of subjectivity Innerlichkeit but would have to fulfill itself. This is the heart of the matter. It can be ascertained very easily; you only have to speak about the elimination of death some time with a so-called well-disposed person — I am borrowing this expression from Ulrich Sonnennmann, who coined and introduced it.


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Then you will get an immediate reaction, in the same way that a policeman would come right after you if you threw a stone at a police station. Yes, if death were eliminated, if people would no longer die, that would be the most terrible and most horrible thing. I would say that it is precisely this form of reaction that actually opposes the Utopian consciousness most of the time.

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The identification with death is that which goes beyond the identification of people with the existing social conditions and in which they are extended. Utopian consciousness means a consciousness for which the possibility that people no longer have to die does not have anything horrible about it, but is, on the contrary, that which one actually wants.

Moreover, it is very striking — you spoke about close-handedness Zurhandenheit before — it is very striking that Heidegger to a certain degree had already cast aspersion on the question about the possibility of an existence without death as a mere ontic question that concerns the end of existence Daseinsende , and he was of the opinion that death, as it were, would retain its absolute, ontological, thus essential dignity only if death were ontically to disappear that is, in the realm of the existing that this sanctification of death or making death an absolute in contemporary philosophy, which I at any rate regard as the absolute antiutopia, is also the key category.

Thus I would say that there is no single category by which Utopia allows itself to be named. But if one wants to see how this entire matter resolves itself, then this question is actually the most important. Bloch: Yes. Indeed, death depicts the hardest counter-utopia. Nailing the coffin puts an end to all of our individual series of actions at the very least. In other words, it also depreciates the before. And when now there is nothing else? There is a picture by Voltaire of despair — the total despair of a shipwrecked man who is swimming in the waves and struggling and squirming for his life when he receives the message that this ocean in which he finds himself does not have a shore but that death is completely in the now in which the shipwrecked man finds himself.

That is why the striving of the swimmer will lead to nothing, for he will never land. It will always remain the same. To be sure, this strongest counter-utopia exists, and that must be said to make things more difficult. And here we touch on the area of the feeling of freedom.

In the social Utopias, in particular, the best possible communal living conditions are determined either through freedom or through order. Here freedom is a variable or auxiliary for the best possible life. Freedom as feeling does not appear in utopia but in natural law, and to be sure, in the liberal natural law of the eighteenth century in connection with the upright gait, in connection with human dignity, which is only guaranteed by freedom. In other words, there are two Utopian parts: the social Utopias as constructions of a condition in which there are no laboring and burdened people; and natural law, in which there are no humiliated and insulted people.

Now there is also a third. This is transcendental. This is something we cannot do.

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In the process the Utopian is transcended in the choice of its possible means. And, nevertheless, it belongs to Utopia. Adorno: Yes, I believe that, too. Indeed, the matter here does not concern conceiving of the elimination of death as a scientific process in such a way that one crosses the threshold between organic and inorganic life through new discoveries. To be sure, I believe that without the notion of an unfettered life, freed from death, the idea of Utopia, the idea of the utopia, cannot even be thought at all. On the other hand, there was something you alluded to about death that I would say was very correct.

There is something profoundly contradictory in every utopia, namely, that it cannot be conceived at all without the elimination of death; this is inherent in the very thought. What I mean is the heaviness of death and everything that is connected to it.

Wherever this is not included, where the threshold of death is not at the same time considered, there can actually be no utopia. And it seems to me that this has very heavy consequences for the theory of knowledge about utopia — if I may put it crassly: One may not cast a picture of utopia in a positive manner.

Every attempt to describe or portray utopia in a simple way, i.


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